Avril D'Souza is a 1994 graduate from the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, and  has been in this practice since 1997.


We are located on 600 Franklin Street at Suite 114 in Schenectady, NY.

Click here for directions

Snoring and Sleep Apnea Treatment

Why do people snore?
Snoring occurs because a narrowing of the airway causes an increase in the speed air travels through the airway and this causes vibration of the soft palate and uvula which creates the snoring sound. Factors that affect snoring are larger soft tissue in the airway, increased resistance in the airway and an increase in the relaxation of these soft tissues.

What are the consequences of untreated snoring?
Disrupted sleep of the affected individual and bed partner can occur. This can lead to daytime fatigue, drowsiness and marital discord.

What are some factors that affect snoring?
Sleeping on your back
Nasal obstruction
Enlarged soft tissues in the throat

What is Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a condition where the soft tissues in the throat completely close off the airway so that air cannot flow to the lungs. This can lead to a decrease in oxygen in the blood which the brain senses and alerts the muscles of the airway to tighten up and unblock the airway. As the breathing process begins again, a disruption of sleep occurs that can lead to a decrease in the body reaching the deep stages of sleep. This sleep disruption causes daytime sleepiness and fatigue that can have serious consequences on an individual's quality of life.

How is Obstructive Sleep Apnea diagnosed?

An overnight sleep study called a polysomnogram (PSG) is used to confirm a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. A PSG measures many body functions during sleep: sleep position, sleep stages, blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, snoring, apneas (decreased airflow by 80% and an arousal from sleep) and hypopneas (decrease airflow by 30% and an arousal from sleep). Patients are then given a diagnosis based on the number of arousals per hour of apneas and hypopneas= AHI, the Apnea-Hypopnea Index.

Mild - 5-15 events per hour
Moderate- 15-30 events per hour
Severe- 30 events per hour or greater

Three important variables are used to determine a patient's severity:
1. The AHI, discussed above
2. The amount of time the patient is having an apnea or hypopnea event
3. The drop in blood oxygen levels as a result of the event


Is Sleep Apnea a serious health risk?

Systemic health effects of sleep apnea can be life threatening: cardiovascular disease from a lack of oxygen in the blood, high blood pressure, stroke, depression/anxiety, type 2 diabetes and a risk of motor vehicle accidents 3 times greater than the normal population.

How does an Oral Appliance prevent Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

Oral appliances are custom made acrylic devices that cover the upper and lower teeth that position the lower jaw forward and open, which help improve muscle tone and move the base of the tongue forward. This improves the size of the airway, allowing air to pass with less resistance. Oral appliances are approximately 85-90% effective in preventing snoring and up to 70% effective in Obstructice Sleep Apnea depending on the severity of the disorder.

What do I do next if I think I would benefit from an oral appliance?

A medical evaluation and diagnosis is important to treating all illnesses, including sleep disordered breathing. A dentist is not licensed to diagnose Snoring or Obstructive Sleep Apnea. It is paramount to begin the process by evaluation with your primary care physician. Some primary care physicians will evaluate the patient and order an overnight sleep study and others will refer the patient to a Pulmonologist for evaluation and treatment. Pulmonologists are board certified in sleep medicine and are highly qualified to treat sleep disordered breathing. Pulmonologists will work closely with an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist to determine the appropriate course of treatment because many patients may benefit from surgeries of the nose and throat to treat obstructive sleep apnea.

What are the treatment options for obstructive sleep apnea?

1. Positional Therapy. Sleeping on one's side can significantly improve a person's sleep apnea or snoring.
2. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP). This device is the standard of care in severe sleep apnea patients. It has a mask that fits tightly over the nose and sometimes the mouth which is attached to an air blower. This air blower administers an air pressure which prevents collapse of the airway.
3. Oral Appliance Therapy. Discussed above.
4. Surgery of the tongue, throat or jaw. An Ear, Nose and Throat specialist may perform soft tissue surgeries of the throat or tongue to clear the airway of patients who cannot tolerate CPAP or oral appliances. An Oral Surgeon may perform jaw surgeries that advance the upper and lower jaw which bring the soft tissues out of the airway. These surgeries are quite invasive and should be considered when nonsurgical therapies have failed.


What is the best option for my condition?

There is no single best option. Many patients may benefit from a combination of the therapies listed above and this is the reason that a team approach is critical in deciding which therapy is best for the individual patient. Dr. Kramer has networked with area medical specialists in treating these patients. A patient is best served when all of the factors are considered before deciding a course of treatment.


Indications for Oral Appliance Therapy

Mild to moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea patients who cannot tolerate CPAP therapy
Combination therapy, where CPAP or surgery has not been completely effective


Contraindications for Oral Appliance Therapy

Limited range of motion of lower jaw
Active TMJ disorder
Insufficient number of teeth (minimum 10 teeth on upper and lower)
Active periodontal disease or excessive tooth mobility


Minor side effects of Oral Appliance therapy

Excessive salivation
Loosening of dental restorations
Dry mouth
Loosening of teeth
Discomfort of teeth or jaw
Temporary bite changes

Significant side effects of Oral Appliance Therapy

Jaw pain
Permanent bite changes
TMJ noise or pain


Oral Appliances used in our office

5 FDA approved appliances are used in our office. No single appliance has been shown to be the most effective in clinical trials. Choosing the appropriate appliance is an important step in the success of oral appliance therapy. Listed below, are the 5 appliances used and a brief description.


UltraAPM™: Made with a heat sensitive inner lining for maximumUltra APM comfort and retention, the Ultra APM™ is an appliance for many indications. It has ample space for the tongue, allows for some movement and can be adjusted in .25 mm increments.





SUAD™: Made from a heat sensitive inner lining for maximum SUADcomfort and retention, the SUAD™ is an excellent appliance for those who grind their teeth. It has a metal framework for strength and allows for freedom of movement. It is advanced by adding small rings to the tube mechanism and the upper and lower parts are held together by elastics (rubber bands). It can be advanced in .25 mm increments.



TAP 3™: Made from a heat sensitive inner lining for maximumTAP 3 comfort and retention, the TAP 3™ is a unique appliance because it is very durable and small. The major drawback is that it restricts the space of the tongue and therefore is limited in use. It is easily advanced in .25 mm increments. There is limited range of motion and therefore not great for those who grind their teeth.



EMA™: Made from a thin, hard lining, the EMA™ is an applianceEMA to use for patients who cannot tolerate a lot of material in their mouth. The upper and lower parts are attached with elastic straps that come in 5 different lengths and 3 tensions that comprise the adjustment mechanism. Finding the ideal length and tension is the important factor for maximum effectiveness of this appliance. It allows for excellent freedom of movement so it is an ideal choice for those with a history of TMJ disorders. The adjustment mechanism is not as exact as the other appliances, so it is not a good choice for more severe cases.


Somnomed MAS™: Made from a softer inner lining for comfort, Somnomed MASthe Somnomed MAS™ is a good appliance for those who need freedom of movement. Its upper and lower parts are held together by elastics (rubber bands) or the units are completely separate. It can be adjusted in increments of .1 mm.


Are you and your spouse sleeping in seperate bedrooms because of snoring? Are you suffering from cardiovascular disease? Are you lacking energy? Are you driving drousy?

Try an oral appliance-it could change your life!


Ready to get rid of your snoring and treat your sleep apnea?
Call Dr. Avril D'Souza today to at (518) 346-5338 to schedule your appointment! 



Questions or Comments?
We encourage you to contact us whenever you have an interest or concern about our services.